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Role of Environmental Biotechnology in Decontaminating Polluted Water

Upma Singh1, Bina Rani2, A K Chauhan3, Raaz Maheshwari3, and M K Vyas4
1 School of Applied Science, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, UP.
2 Department of Engineering Chemistry & Environmental Engineering, PCE, Sitapura, Jaipur.
3 Department of Chemistry, SKGC, Sikar, Rajasthan.
4 Department of Engineering Chemistry & Environmental Engineering, GEC, Bikaner, Rajasthan.
Abstract—Water pollution problems, due to industrial effluents in aquatic environments (lakes, rivers, estuaries & coastal waters), are increasing day by day as industrial effluent waste is degrading ecosystem, global water cycle and environment. Applications of biological agents (organisms or their components), along with physical, chemical & engineering processes to maintain, protect and restore the environment are involved in Environmental Biotechnology (EB). Analytical analysis and tests like biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total solids (TS) etc. are required to assess the pollution load & strength of waste to be treated in most efficient manner. Biological treatment, bioremediation and natural attenuation have been a rapidly growing area of science over the past decade. Natural attenuation is viewed as the best solution for cleaning up many waste sites and will save billions of dollars in cleanup costs. The biotreatment, bioremediation and Natural Attenuation area have both basic research and field application foci for the EB. The field application foci are co-metabolic techniques, biogeochemical assessment techniques, and modeling of attenuation and environmental fate. There is further scope for research for modification and applications in physical and chemical engineering processes (like creation of more channels for treatment of effluent wastes, increase in retention time of effluent during various stages so that more biodegradation & bioremediation can be achieved) and applications of genetically improved better strains of microbes to control effluent pollution more efficiently.

Index Terms—Water pollution, Effluents, Biodegradation, Bioremediation, Microbes, Natural attenuation

Cite: Upma Singh, Bina Rani, A K Chauhan, Raaz Maheshwari, and M K Vyas, "Role of Environmental Biotechnology in Decontaminating Polluted Water," International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 32-46, January 2012.
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