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An Overview of Toxins in Aspergillus Associated With Pathogenesis

Jata Shankar
Department of Biotechnology, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (Central University), Bilaspur 495009 (CG) India.
Abstract—The biological machinery of microbes is remarkably complex. The complexity arises due to synthesis of biological products that are important for structure and growth. Some of the products synthesized by the organism such as secondary metabolites are toxin in nature. Present chapter recounts on toxin produced by Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus and their role in pathogenesis or in host-pathogen interactions. Gliotoxin and Aflatoxin are the major known toxins secreted by A. fumigatus and A. flavus , contributing to the pathogenesis. Gliotoxin allows A. fumigatus to invade the epithelial cells of the lungs surface as well as suppresses the immune response of the host. Whereas, Aflatoxins produced by A. flavus, are generally repressed at host temperature but due to intake contaminated food crop, enter to the host system where it suppresses the immune system to cause pathogenesis. Though, both A. fumigatus and A. flavus are the primary causative agent of invasive of aspergillosis, however, role of these toxins and their involvement in pathogenesis is different. Realizing the availability of genome information for both host as well as pathogen, studies using DNA microarray, proteomics or RNA-seq will shed more light on the role of toxins in Aspergillus mediated pathogenesis.

Index Terms—Gliotoxin, Aflatoxin, Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus flavus , Secondary metabolite

Cite: Jata Shankar, "An Overview of Toxins in Aspergillus Associated With Pathogenesis," International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 16-31, April 2013.
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