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Bacteriological Contamination of Groundwater Due to Onsite Sanitation Problems in Kerala State: A Case Study

P S Harikumar 1 and K Madhava Chandran 2
1. Water Quality Division, Centre for Water Resources Development & Management, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
2. Water Management Division, Centre for Water Resources Development & Management, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
Abstract—An investigation was carried out to determine bacterial contamination of groundwater and its causative factors in selected areas of Kozhikode district in Kerala State, India. Multiple tube fermentation technique was used to determine Total coli forms (TC), Faecal coli forms (FC) and Escherichia coli. As per FC: FS ratio, 55.5% of water samples were contaminated due to unscientific construction of latrines, 11.1% by an animal source, while 33.3 % had mixed contamination from both sources. Further confirmation was done using nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis. One of the detected organisms was Bacillus cereus, contributed by human faeces. The nine independent variables of the study contribute to 53.9% of the variance observed in the total water quality score of the sample wells, with distance of latrine from the well and presence of E. coli exerting statistically significant influence. Results indicate that less than 25% of the wells with lining and less than 16% of the wells located more than 7.5 M from the latrine have the likelihood of presence of E. coli 

Index Terms—bacteriological contamination, faecal coli forms, safe distance

Cite: P S Harikumar and K Madhava Chandran, "Bacteriological Contamination of Groundwater Due to Onsite Sanitation Problems in Kerala State: A Case Study," International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 190-202, July 2013.
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