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Assessment of the Contamination Level of Water and Determination of the Major Sources of Contaminants among Rural Community of Dire Dawa Administrative Council

Desalegn Amenu1, Sissay Menkir2, and Tesfaye Gobena3
1. College of Natural and Computational Science, Wollega University, P.Box. 395, Wollega Ethiopia
2. College of Natural and Computational Science, Haramaya University, P.Box. 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
3. College of Health Science, Haramaya University, P.Box. 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Abstract—In Ethiopia, access to improved water supply and sanitation was estimated at 38% and 12% respectively. Three- forth of the health problems of children in Ethiopia are communicable diseases due to polluted water and improper water handling practices. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the level of contamination and the major sources of contaminant in rural communities of Dire Dawa. A total of 90 water samples from five types of water sources were collected and bacteriological water quality parameters were analyzed using the membrane filtration method by the procedures of the American Public Health Association. Water analysis demonstrated that all water sources in the study areas were contaminated with total coliforms, fecal coliform and parasites. The average counts of TC were in the range of 1.5-133.05 CFU/100 ml whereas the average counts of FC were found to be 0.34-54 CFU/100 ml. The mean concentration of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium ranges from 0 to 5.6 and 0 to 6.5, respectively. In all samples, the TC, FC and FS counts were above the recommended limit of WHO for drinking water quality (1- 10 CFU/100 ml for TC, 0 CFU/100 ml for FC, 0 CFU/100 ml FS) whereas about 83.34% of the water samples in the three selected PAs had high risk of microbiological water quality parameters. Fecal coliform - fecal streptococci ratios in all water sources in this study showed that 45.0% indicated enteric contamination from human wastes and 55.0% was from domestic animal wastes. High concentration of microbiological indicators in all water sources of this study area suggested that the presence of pathogenic organisms which constitute a threat to anyone consuming or in contact with these waters. This is due to lack of good water treatment, lack of feasible disinfection, improper water handling practices and lack of the protection of the water sources. Consequently, protection of water sources accompanied by sanitation and hygiene promotion programs can improve the water quality of rural water sources, where disinfection is not feasible. Proper and basic sanitation, are of prime importance to deliver safe drinking water in the study site. 

Index Terms—dire dawa, drinking water sources, total coliform, fecal coliform, microbiological quality, parasite, water handling practice

Cite: Desalegn Amenu, Sissay Menkir, and Tesfaye Gobena, "Assessment of the Contamination Level of Water and Determination of the Major Sources of Contaminants among Rural Community of Dire Dawa Administrative Council," International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 190-204, January 2014.
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